¿cómo está controlando Thailandia el covid-19?

Thailand Dispatch

No One Knows What Thailand Is Doing Right, but So Far, It’s Working

Can the country’s low rate of coronavirus infections be attributed to culture? Genetics? Face masks? Or a combination of all three?

Monks from Wat Matchanthikaram, wearing masks and face shields to protect them from COVID-19, receive alms from local residents in Bangkok, in April.Credit... 

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  • Published July 16, 2020Updated July 17, 2020, 3:55 a.m. ET

BANGKOK — No one knows exactly why Thailand has been spared.

Is it the social distancing embedded in Thai culture — the habit of greeting others with a wai, a prayer-like motion, rather than a full embrace — that has prevented the runaway transmission of the coronavirus here?

Did Thailand’s early adoption of face masks, combined with a robust health care system, blunt the virus’s impact? Was it the outdoor lifestyle of many Thais, or their relatively low rates of pre-existing conditions?

Is there a genetic component in which the immune systems of Thais and others in the Mekong River region are more resistant to the coronavirus? Or is it some alchemy of all these factors that has insulated this country of 70 million people?

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One thing is certain. Despite an influx of foreign visitors early in the year from countries badly hit by the coronavirus, Thailand has recorded fewer than 3,240 cases and 58 deaths. As of Thursday, there had been no cases of local transmission for about seven weeks.

ImagePolice officers in Bangkok patrolling a checkpoint on one of the city’s busiest streets after a nationwide curfew was put into effect.
Police officers in Bangkok patrolling a checkpoint on one of the city’s busiest streets after a nationwide curfew was put into effect.
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Thais were quick to adopt wearing face masks early in the pandemic and maintain social distancing when using public transportation. 
Thais were quick to adopt wearing face masks early in the pandemic and maintain social distancing when using public transportation. 
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A nearly empty flight from Bangkok to Phuket, Thailand, on March 30.
A nearly empty flight from Bangkok to Phuket, Thailand, on March 30.
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Construction workers, a group largely made up of migrant workers, returned to their dormitories in Bangkok in April.
Construction workers, a group largely made up of migrant workers, returned to their dormitories in Bangkok in April.

Thailand’s low rate of infection appears to be shared by other countries in the Mekong River basin. Vietnam has not recorded a single death and has logged about three months without a case of community transmission. Myanmar has confirmed 336 cases of the virus, Cambodia 166 and Laos just 19.

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Yunnan, the southwestern Chinese province through which the Mekong flows before meandering to Southeast Asia, had fewer than 190 cases. None are active now.

“I don’t think it is about immunity or genetics alone,” said Dr. Taweesin Visanuyothin, the Covid-19 spokesman for Thailand’s Ministry of Public Health. “It has to do with culture. Thai people do not have body contact when we greet each other.”

“This is how the countries in the Mekong region greet each other as well,” Dr. Taweesin added.

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The authorities spraying travelers with disinfectant in Phuket, a popular vacation spot, in March.
The authorities spraying travelers with disinfectant in Phuket, a popular vacation spot, in March.
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Disinfecting a market before it reopened in Bangkok, in May.
Disinfecting a market before it reopened in Bangkok, in May.
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Drive-through testing at a hospital in Bangkok, in March.
Drive-through testing at a hospital in Bangkok, in March.
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Workers making cloth face masks at a factory owned by Wacoal, an underwear manufacturer, in Bangkok, in April.
Workers making cloth face masks at a factory owned by Wacoal, an underwear manufacturer, in Bangkok, in April.

It didn’t always look so upbeat. In January, Thailand confirmed the world’s first case of the coronavirus outside of China — in a tourist from Wuhan, the central Chinese city where the outbreak is believed to have begun.

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Another wave of infections was set off by people arriving from Japan, Europe and the United States. A Thai boxing event turned into a super-spreader event. But after a lockdown was enforced in March, shuttering businesses and schools, domestic transmissions subsided. All of Thailand’s recent cases have been among people who arrived from overseas.

Dr. Wiput Phoolcharoen, a public health expert at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok who is researching an outbreak of the coronavirus in Pattani in southern Thailand, noted that more than 90 percent of those who tested positive there were asymptomatic, much higher than normal.

“What we are studying now is the immune system,” he said.

Dr. Wiput said Thais and other people from this part of Southeast Asia were more susceptible to certain serious cases of dengue fever, a mosquito-borne virus, than those from other continents.

“If our immune systems against dengue are so bad, why can’t our immune system against Covid be better?” he asked.

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Students at Sawasdee Wittaya Primary School learning about washing hands after schools reopened this month.
Students at Sawasdee Wittaya Primary School learning about washing hands after schools reopened this month.
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Registering to receive financial aid from the government in Bangkok, in May.
Registering to receive financial aid from the government in Bangkok, in May.
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The closed Apple Store at Icon Siam, one of Thailand’s most upmarket and largest shopping malls, in March.
The closed Apple Store at Icon Siam, one of Thailand’s most upmarket and largest shopping malls, in March.

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Homeless people lining up at a food distribution center in Bangkok, in April.
Homeless people lining up at a food distribution center in Bangkok, in April.

Though Thailand’s hospitals have not been overwhelmed by coronavirus patients, the country’s tourism-dependent economy has been battered.

In April, Thailand banned almost all incoming flights, amid the tightening lockdown. Holidaymakers stopped coming to Bangkok, once the world’s most visited city. The Thai tourism and sports ministry estimates that 60 percent of hospitality businesses could close by the end of the year.

The International Monetary Fund predicts the Thai economy will shrink by at least 6.5 percent this year. More than eight million Thais may lose their jobs or income in 2020, the World Bank has said, in a nation already cleaved by a yawning gap between rich and poor.

The Coronavirus Outbreak ›

Frequently Asked Questions

Updated July 16, 2020

  • Is the coronavirus airborne?

  • What are the symptoms of coronavirus?

  • What’s the best material for a mask?

  • Is it harder to exercise while wearing a mask?

    • A commentary published this month on the website of the British Journal of Sports Medicine points out that covering your face during exercise “comes with issues of potential breathing restriction and discomfort” and requires “balancing benefits versus possible adverse events.” Masks do alter exercise, says Cedric X. Bryant, the president and chief science officer of the American Council on Exercise, a nonprofit organization that funds exercise research and certifies fitness professionals. “In my personal experience,” he says, “heart rates are higher at the same relative intensity when you wear a mask.” Some people also could experience lightheadedness during familiar workouts while masked, says Len Kravitz, a professor of exercise science at the University of New Mexico.
  • What is pandemic paid leave?

    • The coronavirus emergency relief package gives many American workers paid leave if they need to take time off because of the virus. It gives qualified workers two weeks of paid sick leave if they are ill, quarantined or seeking diagnosis or preventive care for coronavirus, or if they are caring for sick family members. It gives 12 weeks of paid leave to people caring for children whose schools are closed or whose child care provider is unavailable because of the coronavirus. It is the first time the United States has had widespread federally mandated paid leave, and includes people who don’t typically get such benefits, like part-time and gig economy workers. But the measure excludes at least half of private-sector workers, including those at the country’s largest employers, and gives small employers significant leeway to deny leave.

Thai households have some of the highest debt loads in Asia, and the most desperate have lined up at Buddhist temples for handouts of rice.

After a promised disbursement of emergency government funds was bogged down in bureaucracy, a woman swallowed rat poison outside of a government building. She survived, but suicides are up in Thailand.

Covid Thailand Aid, a charity set up in the wake of the pandemic, has been inundated by pleas from Thais with only a dollar or two left in their bank accounts, said Natalie Narkprasert, one of the group’s founders.

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A park in Bangkok on May 3, after the city began easing restrictions.
A park in Bangkok on May 3, after the city began easing restrictions.
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Protective screens at street food stalls in Bangkok, in May.
Protective screens at street food stalls in Bangkok, in May.
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Thai boxing gyms were allowed to re-open on June 1.
Thai boxing gyms were allowed to re-open on June 1.
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A salon after re-opening in Bangkok, in May.
A salon after re-opening in Bangkok, in May.

The country’s large population of migrant workers, many from neighboring Myanmar and Cambodia, is also hurting. While some people managed to make it home before the borders closed, others are stuck in Thailand with no wages from their jobs as hotel cleaners, kitchen hands and food stall operators.

“Now is when people want more help because it’s been so long and it’s not going to get better,” Ms. Natalie said.

A sense of normalcy has recently returned to Thailand. Schools have reopened with children wearing face masks and studying at spaced-out desks. And in early July, the first holiday weekend in months — Thai New Year festivities were canceled in April — prompted an uptick in domestic tourism.

Thailand has also allowed a trickle of foreigners back into the country. But with the new arrivals comes the risk of contagion.

This week, an Egyptian military pilot was confirmed to have tested positive for the coronavirus, after he breached quarantine and visited shopping centers in a Thai beach town. Some schools in the area are now closed again. Two activists who protested the government’s handling of the quarantine violation were arrested on Wednesday for contravening Thailand’s emergency decree.

Questions are also being raised about why migrant workers who were deported from Thailand arrived home and immediately tested positive for the disease, despite not being included in the official Thai count of coronavirus cases. Thailand’s testing rates remain relatively low.

“With the disease still looming,” said Dr. Taweesin, the health ministry spokesman, “we have to keep our guard up.”

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A popular entertainment street, just before curfew, was closed down due to a localized coronavirus outbreak, in Patong, Phuket, in March.
A popular entertainment street, just before curfew, was closed down due to a localized coronavirus outbreak, in Patong, Phuket, in March.

Muktita Suhartono contributed reporting.

Hannah Beech has been the Southeast Asia bureau chief since 2017, based in Bangkok. Before joining The Times, she reported for Time magazine for 20 years from bases in Shanghai, Beijing, Bangkok and Hong Kong. @hkbeech

A version of this article appears in print on
July 17, 2020
, Section A, Page 9 of the New York edition with the headline: The Happy Mystery of a Region’s Success Against the Coronavirus. Order Reprints | Today’s Paper | Subscribe
Monks from Wat Matchanthikaram, wearing masks and face shields to protect them from COVID-19, receive alms from local residents in Bangkok, in April.

Monks from Wat Matchanthikaram, wearing masks and face shields to protect them from COVID-19, receive alms from local residents in Bangkok, in April.